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碳达峰目标下 交通运输发展路径思考

发布日期:2021-07-12 作者:来源:中国交通新闻网(wang) 点击:

交通(tong)运(yun)输(shu)是我国(guo)碳达(da)峰碳中和目标(biao)实现的重点领域。本文从当(dang)前交通(tong)运(yun)输(shu)碳排(pai)放现状出发,对标(biao)2030年、2060年目标(biao)提(ti)出我国(guo)交通(tong)运(yun)输(shu)走(zou)“调结构、电气(qi)化(hua)、智能(neng)化(hua)、简约化(hua)”的发展(zhan)路径及(ji)具体(ti)工作建议。

交通(tong)运输低碳(tan)发展面临严(yan)峻(jun)挑战

为(wei)了应对全(quan)球气(qi)候变化(hua),彰显大国(guo)(guo)担当和(he)(he)责任(ren),我国(guo)(guo)向世(shi)界庄严(yan)宣布:力争2030年前二氧(yang)化(hua)碳排放(fang)达(da)到峰值,努力争取(qu)2060年前实(shi)现碳中和(he)(he)目标(biao)。交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)输领域(yu)的(de)能(neng)源需求和(he)(he)二氧(yang)化(hua)碳排放(fang)快速增长,仅次于(yu)工业(ye)领域(yu)。石油是交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)输领域(yu)的(de)主要能(neng)源,其消耗(hao)过程不仅会(hui)排放(fang)大量二氧(yang)化(hua)碳,还(hai)会(hui)造成严(yan)重(zhong)环(huan)境污染。伴随着我国(guo)(guo)整体步入(ru)工业(ye)化(hua)后期和(he)(he)后工业(ye)化(hua)发展阶段,交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)输领域(yu)将成为(wei)影响我国(guo)(guo)碳达(da)峰、改(gai)善空气(qi)质(zhi)量和(he)(he)保障能(neng)源安全(quan)的(de)重(zhong)点领域(yu)。因(yin)此,研究碳达(da)峰目标(biao)下交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)输发展路径战略具有重(zhong)要意义。

交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)是二(er)(er)氧化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)排放的(de)重要(yao)领(ling)域(yu)(yu)(yu)。国际能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)机构(gou)数(shu)据显示,2018年我国交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)领(ling)域(yu)(yu)(yu)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)消费(fei)量为4.67亿吨标准煤,占(zhan)(zhan)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)消费(fei)总量的(de)10.2%;交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)领(ling)域(yu)(yu)(yu)二(er)(er)氧化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)排放量约为10亿吨,占(zhan)(zhan)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)排放总量约10.7%。2018年,我国石油表观消费(fei)量达(da)6.48亿吨,一(yi)半以上用于交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)燃(ran)料(liao),柴油、汽(qi)油、燃(ran)料(liao)油和(he)航空煤油等(deng)油品占(zhan)(zhan)交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)用能(neng)(neng)的(de)90%以上。从(cong)用能(neng)(neng)的(de)主要(yao)交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)设备看,包(bao)括货(huo)车、公共汽(qi)车和(he)私(si)家车等(deng)在内的(de)车辆能(neng)(neng)耗量最大(da),占(zhan)(zhan)2018年交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)领(ling)域(yu)(yu)(yu)总能(neng)(neng)耗的(de)70%左右(you)。随(sui)着人民生活水平的(de)不(bu)断提高,未(wei)来一(yi)段时(shi)间,交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输(shu)领(ling)域(yu)(yu)(yu)的(de)二(er)(er)氧化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)排放仍将继续增加。

货(huo)(huo)运(yun)是二(er)氧化碳(tan)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)的(de)主(zhu)体。2018年货(huo)(huo)运(yun)总(zong)(zong)能耗(hao)为2.26亿吨标准煤,约(yue)占交(jiao)通运(yun)输(shu)总(zong)(zong)能耗(hao)的(de)48%,其(qi)(qi)中公(gong)路、水(shui)(shui)路、铁路、民(min)航(hang)和(he)(he)管(guan)(guan)道(dao)五种(zhong)交(jiao)通运(yun)输(shu)方(fang)式的(de)能耗(hao)占比分别(bie)约(yue)65%、23%、3%、4%、5%。可以看出,尽管(guan)(guan)货(huo)(huo)运(yun)总(zong)(zong)能耗(hao)不(bu)足交(jiao)通运(yun)输(shu)总(zong)(zong)能耗(hao)的(de)一半,但其(qi)(qi)主(zhu)要运(yun)输(shu)方(fang)式是公(gong)路,而公(gong)路的(de)百万吨公(gong)里的(de)碳(tan)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)强度远高于(yu)水(shui)(shui)路、铁路和(he)(he)管(guan)(guan)道(dao),仅次于(yu)民(min)航(hang)。传统货(huo)(huo)运(yun)和(he)(he)新兴(xing)货(huo)(huo)运(yun)的(de)新变化和(he)(he)趋势使(shi)得货(huo)(huo)运(yun)仍然是交(jiao)通运(yun)输(shu)领域二(er)氧化碳(tan)排(pai)放(fang)(fang)主(zhu)体。

客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)结(jie)构面(mian)临深度调整(zheng)。2018年(nian),城(cheng)际客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)和(he)城(cheng)市(shi)客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)分别占交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)领域的(de)(de)13%和(he)39%,即客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)能(neng)(neng)源消耗(hao)总(zong)量略大(da)于货(huo)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)。近年(nian)来(lai)(lai)(lai)客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)结(jie)构特别是(shi)(shi)城(cheng)际客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)结(jie)构调整(zheng)加(jia)快。铁路(lu)(lu)建设(she)尤其是(shi)(shi)高(gao)铁的(de)(de)飞速(su)(su)发展(zhan),大(da)大(da)提高(gao)电气化(hua)水平和(he)城(cheng)际客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)的(de)(de)效率,降低碳排(pai)放(fang)强(qiang)度;民航(hang)客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)将增加(jia)交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)和(he)碳排(pai)放(fang),但是(shi)(shi)潜(qian)力有限(xian);水路(lu)(lu)客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)便捷性较差(cha),近几年(nian)增速(su)(su)较为(wei)缓慢;公路(lu)(lu)一直以来(lai)(lai)(lai)是(shi)(shi)客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)的(de)(de)主要方式,预期未来(lai)(lai)(lai)能(neng)(neng)源消耗(hao)强(qiang)度和(he)碳排(pai)放(fang)强(qiang)度下降潜(qian)力巨大(da)。私人(ren)汽(qi)车(che)保(bao)有量和(he)出行比重(zhong)呈逐年(nian)上升的(de)(de)趋势(shi),私人(ren)汽(qi)车(che)的(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)耗(hao)强(qiang)度和(he)碳排(pai)放(fang)强(qiang)度在所(suo)有交(jiao)(jiao)通运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)方式中(zhong)最高(gao),但能(neng)(neng)源替代(dai)势(shi)头(tou)明朗,未来(lai)(lai)(lai)电动汽(qi)车(che)将迎来(lai)(lai)(lai)全(quan)面(mian)大(da)发展(zhan)。综合来(lai)(lai)(lai)看,客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)电气化(hua)和(he)低碳化(hua)成为(wei)发展(zhan)趋势(shi)。

我(wo)国交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)领(ling)域取得长足发(fa)展,但也面(mian)临着许多严(yan)峻问题。主要是:交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)是居民出(chu)(chu)行和(he)物流(liu)服(fu)(fu)务的(de)基础支撑(cheng)和(he)保障,碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)(pai)放总(zong)量(liang)(liang)(liang)控(kong)制难(nan)度很大。大宗商品长途运(yun)(yun)输(shu)公路(lu)占比(bi)较大,铁路(lu)货运(yun)(yun)和(he)客(ke)运(yun)(yun)比(bi)例偏低,机(ji)场港口缺(que)乏统筹导(dao)致一些地区的(de)基础设施(shi)利(li)用(yong)率(lv)不(bu)高(gao)(gao),小汽车客(ke)运(yun)(yun)出(chu)(chu)行比(bi)例过高(gao)(gao),各种运(yun)(yun)输(shu)方式(shi)衔接不(bu)畅(chang)导(dao)致多式(shi)联运(yun)(yun)发(fa)展滞后,从(cong)而造成交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)结构(gou)不(bu)合理(li)、能源利(li)用(yong)率(lv)低和(he)二氧化(hua)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)(pai)放量(liang)(liang)(liang)大。城(cheng)市公共交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)服(fu)(fu)务水(shui)平(ping)不(bu)高(gao)(gao)导(dao)致出(chu)(chu)行分担率(lv)偏低,人(ren)们对SUV等大排(pai)(pai)量(liang)(liang)(liang)汽车的(de)需求进一步提高(gao)(gao),对运(yun)(yun)输(shu)时(shi)效(xiao)性、个(ge)性化(hua)和(he)舒适度等要求越(yue)(yue)来越(yue)(yue)高(gao)(gao),从(cong)而导(dao)致单(dan)位运(yun)(yun)输(shu)周转量(liang)(liang)(liang)的(de)二氧化(hua)碳(tan)(tan)排(pai)(pai)放强(qiang)度下降面(mian)临瓶颈,低碳(tan)(tan)交(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)发(fa)展面(mian)临严(yan)重挑战。

交通运(yun)输碳达峰四条路径

2019年(nian),党(dang)中央(yang)、国务院印(yin)发《交(jiao)通强(qiang)国建(jian)设纲要》,提出“两步(bu)走”战略,即(ji)到(dao)2035年(nian),现代综合(he)交(jiao)通体(ti)系(xi)初步(bu)形(xing)成,基本(ben)建(jian)成交(jiao)通强(qiang)国;到(dao)2050年(nian),全面建(jian)成人民满意、保障(zhang)有(you)力、世界前列的交(jiao)通强(qiang)国。

为推(tui)进能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)生(sheng)产和消费革(ge)(ge)命、保障国家能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)安全,2016年,国家发(fa)展改革(ge)(ge)委、国家能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)局联合印发(fa)了《能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)生(sheng)产和消费革(ge)(ge)命战略(2016—2030)》,提出到(dao)2030年,可(ke)再生(sheng)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)、天(tian)然(ran)气和核能(neng)(neng)利(li)(li)用持续增(zeng)长,高碳(tan)(tan)化(hua)石能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)利(li)(li)用大幅(fu)减(jian)少,新增(zeng)能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)需(xu)求主要依靠清(qing)洁能(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)满足,二氧化(hua)碳(tan)(tan)排放(fang)2030年左右达到(dao)峰值并争取尽早达峰。

因此,碳达峰(feng)目(mu)标下交通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输发(fa)展(zhan)战略(lve)应以(yi)交通(tong)(tong)强国战略(lve)和能源革命战略(lve)为(wei)前提,探索(suo)交通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输领(ling)域何时达峰(feng)、峰(feng)值目(mu)标和达峰(feng)路径。

为实(shi)现(xian)交(jiao)通强国战(zhan)(zhan)略(lve)目(mu)标,在能源革命战(zhan)(zhan)略(lve)目(mu)标约束下,交(jiao)通运输要瞄准(zhun)新(xin)目(mu)标、把握新(xin)机(ji)遇、顺应新(xin)形势,从以下四(si)条路径着力发展(zhan):

路(lu)径(jing)一(yi):调结构。一(yi)是优(you)(you)化(hua)(hua)城(cheng)(cheng)镇化(hua)(hua)发(fa)(fa)展模式(shi)(shi),实现交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)需求源(yuan)头减量(liang)。优(you)(you)化(hua)(hua)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)出(chu)行(xing)(xing)结构,大力推动TOD发(fa)(fa)展模式(shi)(shi),即以公(gong)(gong)共(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)为(wei)导向的(de)(de)发(fa)(fa)展模式(shi)(shi),提(ti)高非机动化(hua)(hua)出(chu)行(xing)(xing)、公(gong)(gong)共(gong)出(chu)行(xing)(xing)和(he)(he)共(gong)享出(chu)行(xing)(xing)比重。二是优(you)(you)化(hua)(hua)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)结构,提(ti)高绿色交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)分担(dan)率,探索在碳达峰目标下适合(he)(he)我国国情的(de)(de)综合(he)(he)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)体(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。优(you)(you)化(hua)(hua)货运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)结构,提(ti)高铁(tie)路(lu)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)和(he)(he)铁(tie)水联运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)比重;升级水运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong),加快完善内(nei)河水运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)网络;建立以高铁(tie)和(he)(he)铁(tie)路(lu)为(wei)骨架的(de)(de)城(cheng)(cheng)际客(ke)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)体(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)(xi),减少民航与(yu)私(si)家车出(chu)行(xing)(xing);优(you)(you)化(hua)(hua)轨(gui)道交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)和(he)(he)城(cheng)(cheng)市(shi)公(gong)(gong)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong),提(ti)高公(gong)(gong)共(gong)出(chu)行(xing)(xing)比重;打造旅(lv)客(ke)联程运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)便捷顺畅、货物多式(shi)(shi)联运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)高效的(de)(de)综合(he)(he)交(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)(jiao)通(tong)(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)体(ti)(ti)系(xi)(xi)(xi)。

路径二(er):电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气化。一是(shi)加快低碳替代。加快普及电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)汽(qi)(qi)车、燃(ran)料电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池汽(qi)(qi)车和氢能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)汽(qi)(qi)车等新能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)汽(qi)(qi)车燃(ran)料替代,提(ti)高新能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)汽(qi)(qi)车的普及率(lv)和出行(xing)分担率(lv);增加节能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)型(xing)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)装备(bei),大(da)大(da)降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)低单位能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)耗;加快提(ti)升铁路运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)效(xiao)率(lv),提(ti)高铁路出行(xing)分担率(lv);提(ti)高天(tian)然(ran)气比重和生物燃(ran)料利(li)用(yong)规(gui)模;改(gai)变交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)使用(yong)结构,降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)低煤(mei)油(you)(you)、柴油(you)(you)在(zai)(zai)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)消(xiao)费总量中(zhong)(zhong)所占(zhan)(zhan)比例(li),到一定时(shi)期可限制汽(qi)(qi)柴油(you)(you)车生产(chan)(chan),提(ti)高天(tian)然(ran)气、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力在(zai)(zai)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)消(xiao)费总量中(zhong)(zhong)所占(zhan)(zhan)比例(li)。二(er)是(shi)优(you)化能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)结构,降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)低交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)用(yong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng),减少碳排放。中(zhong)(zhong)东部(bu)地区(qu)是(shi)我国能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)的负荷中(zhong)(zhong)心,长期以(yi)来北煤(mei)南运(yun)(yun)已成为习惯。如果优(you)先发展中(zhong)(zhong)东部(bu)本地可再(zai)生能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan),辅(fu)以(yi)西电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)东送和北煤(mei)南运(yun)(yun),可以(yi)很好(hao)解决中(zhong)(zhong)东部(bu)地区(qu)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)问(wen)题,从而减少煤(mei)炭运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu),进(jin)(jin)而降(jiang)(jiang)(jiang)低能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)消(xiao)费量和碳排放量。三(san)是(shi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)与(yu)交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)协(xie)同创新、融(rong)合发展。在(zai)(zai)交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)侧,加快交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)再(zai)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)气化进(jin)(jin)程,加大(da)可再(zai)生能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)、清洁能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)在(zai)(zai)交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)系(xi)统(tong)中(zhong)(zhong)应用(yong)力度;在(zai)(zai)能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)侧,推进(jin)(jin)交(jiao)通(tong)(tong)运(yun)(yun)输(shu)(shu)(shu)系(xi)统(tong)向(xiang)产(chan)(chan)消(xiao)者转型(xing),实现部(bu)分能(neng)(neng)(neng)(neng)源(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)(yuan)自主供给。

路(lu)径三:智能(neng)化(hua)(hua)。充分利用(yong)互联网、大(da)数据、人(ren)工智能(neng)和(he)区块(kuai)链等新(xin)一代信息技(ji)术(shu)(shu)与(yu)交通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输行(xing)(xing)业(ye)深度(du)融合,提(ti)高(gao)交通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输领(ling)域智能(neng)化(hua)(hua)水(shui)平。一是利用(yong)车(che)(che)(che)路(lu)协同(tong)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)生态驾驶,降低机动车(che)(che)(che)能(neng)耗排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)的(de)潜力。集中(zhong)攻克(ke)关(guan)键(jian)技(ji)术(shu)(shu)、效能(neng)评估(gu)、应用(yong)模(mo)式(shi)等关(guan)键(jian)核心问(wen)题,完成机动车(che)(che)(che)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)过(guo)(guo)程中(zhong)能(neng)耗排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)单(dan)车(che)(che)(che)最(zui)优(you)向群(qun)体(ti)协同(tong)最(zui)优(you)转型升(sheng)(sheng)级,从而进(jin)一步降低机动车(che)(che)(che)总体(ti)二(er)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)碳排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)。二(er)是大(da)力发(fa)展(zhan)智慧车(che)(che)(che)列交通(tong)(tong)运(yun)输系统(tong)。通(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)移动互联网实(shi)现(xian)预约出(chu)行(xing)(xing),利用(yong)云计(ji)算把同(tong)一站点(dian)上(shang)车(che)(che)(che)和(he)同(tong)一站点(dian)下(xia)车(che)(che)(che)的(de)乘客安排(pai)(pai)在同(tong)一个交通(tong)(tong)工具里,实(shi)现(xian)“点(dian)对点(dian)”运(yun)送模(mo)式(shi),有效解决地(di)铁和(he)轻轨“站站停”所带(dai)(dai)来的(de)平均(jun)车(che)(che)(che)速低的(de)问(wen)题以及(ji)城市(shi)(shi)交通(tong)(tong)拥(yong)堵(du)所带(dai)(dai)来的(de)能(neng)源消耗和(he)二(er)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)碳排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang)问(wen)题。三是大(da)力发(fa)展(zhan)智慧物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu),探索地(di)下(xia)物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)发(fa)展(zhan)。智慧物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)可(ke)实(shi)现(xian)物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)各环(huan)节(jie)精细化(hua)(hua)、动态化(hua)(hua)、可(ke)视化(hua)(hua)管(guan)理,提(ti)升(sheng)(sheng)物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)运(yun)作(zuo)效率(lv)。地(di)下(xia)物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)是通(tong)(tong)过(guo)(guo)地(di)下(xia)管(guan)道、隧道等运(yun)输通(tong)(tong)路(lu),对货(huo)物(wu)(wu)(wu)实(shi)行(xing)(xing)运(yun)输及(ji)分拣配送的(de)全新(xin)概念物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)系统(tong)。智慧物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)和(he)地(di)下(xia)物(wu)(wu)(wu)流(liu)(liu)系统(tong)可(ke)有效解决城市(shi)(shi)交通(tong)(tong)拥(yong)堵(du)、降低二(er)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)碳排(pai)(pai)放(fang)(fang),是城市(shi)(shi)交通(tong)(tong)可(ke)持续(xu)发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)必要选(xuan)择(ze)。

路径(jing)四:简(jian)约化(hua)(hua)(hua)。交通运输低碳发展(zhan)离不开广(guang)大民(min)众的参与。一是倡(chang)导简(jian)约适度(du)和(he)绿色低碳的出行(xing)方(fang)式,强(qiang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)公民(min)环保意识,鼓(gu)励乘坐公共交通,倡(chang)导骑行(xing)、步行(xing)等,形成绿色低碳、文明(ming)健(jian)康的出行(xing)方(fang)式和(he)消费(fei)模式。二是加强(qiang)私人购买汽车小型(xing)(xing)化(hua)(hua)(hua)、轻(qing)型(xing)(xing)化(hua)(hua)(hua)、电动化(hua)(hua)(hua)引导,通过税(shui)收优惠方(fang)式,鼓(gu)励车辆小型(xing)(xing)化(hua)(hua)(hua),对大排量和(he)奢侈性车辆课以重税(shui),营造(zao)良好的用车文化(hua)(hua)(hua)。

全面完(wan)善提升交通运输绿色治理能力水平

一是研究出(chu)台交通(tong)(tong)运输(shu)领(ling)域碳(tan)(tan)(tan)达峰(feng)路(lu)径(jing)与(yu)规(gui)划(hua)方(fang)(fang)案(an)。以《交通(tong)(tong)强国建(jian)设纲(gang)要》和《能源生产和消费(fei)革命战(zhan)略(2016—2030)》为(wei)指导(dao),从国家层(ceng)面出(chu)台《交通(tong)(tong)领(ling)域二(er)(er)氧化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)达峰(feng)路(lu)径(jing)规(gui)划(hua)方(fang)(fang)案(an)》,提出(chu)交通(tong)(tong)运输(shu)领(ling)域二(er)(er)氧化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)达峰(feng)的(de)(de)原则、总体战(zhan)略目标(biao)和分阶段目标(biao)任务,细化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)达峰(feng)行(xing)动的(de)(de)途径(jing)、时间表(biao)和路(lu)线图,提出(chu)具(ju)体保障(zhang)措施。根据我国发展不均(jun)衡(heng)等(deng)实际情(qing)况(kuang),对不同区域实行(xing)分阶段达峰(feng)差异化(hua)(hua)管控,统筹省、市、县(xian)交通(tong)(tong)运输(shu)领(ling)域二(er)(er)氧化(hua)(hua)碳(tan)(tan)(tan)达峰(feng)实施路(lu)径(jing),形成具(ju)体考核指标(biao)纳入本地经济社会发展中(zhong)。

二是(shi)完(wan)善(shan)交通运(yun)输(shu)绿(lv)(lv)色(se)治理体(ti)系(xi)。为适(shi)应绿(lv)(lv)色(se)交通新(xin)形势发(fa)展(zhan),应直面(mian)推动交通运(yun)输(shu)绿(lv)(lv)色(se)低(di)碳发(fa)展(zhan)的新(xin)技术(shu)、新(xin)业态涌(yong)现(xian)等的现(xian)实,充分研究、论(lun)证现(xian)有政策法规标(biao)(biao)准制度(du)体(ti)系(xi),修订完(wan)善(shan)交通运(yun)输(shu)现(xian)行法律(lv)法规中与碳达峰目(mu)标(biao)(biao)下改革和创新(xin)发(fa)展(zhan)不(bu)相(xiang)适(shi)应、不(bu)被(bei)重视的条款,尽快制定交通运(yun)输(shu)能源效率标(biao)(biao)准,健(jian)全相(xiang)关交通运(yun)输(shu)法律(lv)法规,全面(mian)完(wan)善(shan)提升交通运(yun)输(shu)绿(lv)(lv)色(se)治理能力(li)水平。

三是强化(hua)(hua)绿色交(jiao)通试点(dian)示范(fan)建(jian)设。针对传统内(nei)燃(ran)机(ji)车(che),通过持(chi)续(xu)提升(sheng)机(ji)动车(che)燃(ran)油经济性(xing)标准,加快普及轻(qing)量化(hua)(hua)、小型化(hua)(hua)和(he)动力(li)总成升(sheng)级优(you)化(hua)(hua)等(deng)先(xian)进成熟技术(shu)。围绕交(jiao)通装备智(zhi)能化(hua)(hua)和(he)绿色化(hua)(hua)开展(zhan)技术(shu)攻关,提高(gao)运输(shu)效率(lv)、降低碳排(pai)放。针对车(che)路协同、智(zhi)慧车(che)列、智(zhi)慧物流(liu)、地下物流(liu)、新(xin)能源(yuan)汽车(che)与储(chu)能协同发展(zhan)等(deng)新(xin)模(mo)式(shi)和(he)新(xin)业态,在全国(guo)范(fan)围内(nei)选择有条件、有基础(chu)、规模(mo)适当的(de)区域,加强试点(dian)示范(fan)建(jian)设,形成一批(pi)可复制(zhi)、可推(tui)广(guang)的(de)模(mo)式(shi),为全国(guo)范(fan)围内(nei)推(tui)广(guang)奠定良(liang)好基础(chu)。

(作者:中(zhong)国工程院战略咨询中(zhong)心:江媛 李喆 卢春(chun)房 杜祥琬


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